Elasticsearch进阶篇@记kibana执行dsl脚本实战过程 | 社区征文

开篇

分而治之是大数据计算的基本思路,特分享一款天然的分布式全文搜索引擎-Elastic Search,而如何归并,是分而治之的重点难题。在HA集群节点架构中,各个节点主备分片如何分配,各分片搜索结果如何得出最终结果…


引入 | 记一次kibana执行dsl脚本实战的思考过程 image.png

适合场景

当千万乃至更大数据量,需要像传统DBMS关系型数据库一样,实现在海量数据中作模糊搜索,全文搜索,又需要有一定程度的检索效率,突破传统DBMS性能瓶颈,那么ES很适合与关系型数据库形成互补,ES在搜索领域拥有强悍的性能,而传统DBMS关系型数据库分库分表组合查询相当麻烦,而ES组合灵活-自动路由(开发者无需在业务层作过多干涉),当然,在大数据量复杂查询的话,深度分页需要优化下,简单的查询几十亿问题不大,若超大则可上集群,再可上ES-ClickHouse.

重要考虑

虽然传统DBMS关系型数据库表中数据,可通过一系列方案-结合实际业务作数据同步至ES(数据建模),但当大批量数据同步到ES单节点,或从节点往集群迁移copy数据,基于logstash亦或是基于ES-Transport批量提交数据,数据需要实时更新亦或离线初始化,还有就是聚合的性能以及一些高级属性,比如copy to,script脚步引擎应用,mapping设计之动态模版映射动态索引或为指定索引匹配预制动态模版等等…

脚本引擎历史

一、Elasticsearch Script History-分布式全文搜索-脚本引擎历史

在ES早期的版本中,使用MVEL脚本,但为解决安全隐患问题,于是Groovy脚本诞生。

随之出现的安全漏洞跟内存泄露问题,于是在ES5.0版本之际,painless脚本官宣,距今也有数年之久,painless脚本浮现在开发者眼前。

脚本引擎应用

二、Elasticsearch Script ApplyCenarios-分布式全文搜索-脚本引擎应用场景

我们都很熟悉的认知到Elasticsearch全文搜索引擎,在其各版本系列中提供了丰富的dsl语法-增删改查-这里以6.x版本系列-6.8.6为例。

在80%以上的业务场景中作增删改查游刃有余,但应用于相对复杂的业务场景:

多字段自定义更新、自定义reindex、自定义数组字段动态添加...

https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/elasticsearch/painless/6.8/painless-regexes.html

当然基于脚本引擎手动开发插件也是可以实现的。

https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/elasticsearch/reference/current/modules-scripting-engine.html

从painless脚本的衍生意义理解是"无痛"无漏洞的,但尤其需要注意的地方-不能以root账户启动es,不要公开es路径至其他用户。

从官方Script使用的介绍来看,首要就是性能问题,其次就是使用业务场景,ebay在性能优化实践英文版中也有体现,

https://www.ebayinc.com/stories/blogs/tech/elasticsearch-performance-tuning-practice-at-ebay/

这里也mark下中文版。

https://www.infoq.cn/article/elasticsearch-performance-tuning-practice-at-ebay

其中,80%以上的业务场景:参考小编汇总Elasticsearch+Kibana+Dsl-Crud大全

DSL语法大全

GET _search
{
  "query": {
    "match_all": {}
  }
}
#节点信息
GET _cat/nodes?v
GET _cat/master

#各节点机器存储信息
GET _cat/allocation?v

#索引信息
GET _cat/indices?v
GET /_cat/count
GET /_cat/count/yd-2021
GET _cat/indices/yd-hlht-test-2022

#分片信息
GET _cat/shards?v
GET _cat/shards/yd-hlht-test-2022

#查看所有分片的恢复状况-该命令查看initializing分片的恢复进度
GET _cat/recovery/

GET _cat/recovery/yd-hlht-test-2022

GET _cluster/health

GET _cluster/nodes/hot_threads

#查看分片未分配原因
GET /_cat/shards?h=index,shard,prirep,state,unassigned.*,unassigned.reason | grep UNASSIGNED

#查看具体分片未分配原因
GET _cluster/allocation/explain
{
  "index":"yd-hlht-test-2022",
  "shard":0,
  "primary":false
}

#注册快照存储库-仓库共享
PUT _snapshot/my_backup
{
  "type": "fs",
  "settings": {
    "location": "/home/user/yxd179/es/backup"
  }
}

#查看仓库信息
GET /_snapshot/my_backup?pretty

#查看快照存储库保存结果
GET _snapshot

#创建快照,这个会备份所有打开的索引到my_backup仓库下并命名为snapshot_yd的快照里。这个调用会立刻返回,然后快照会在后台运行。若是希望在脚本中一直等待到完成,可通过添加 wait_for_completion 标记实现,这个会阻塞调用直到快照完成(如果是大型快照,会花很长时间才返回),其中只会备份索引809iJpOmSI2ZmJrUqKRR0Q信息
PUT /_snapshot/my_backup/snapshot_yd?wait_for_completion=true
{
  "indices": "809iJpOmSI2ZmJrUqKRR0Q",
  "ignore_unavailable": true,
  "include_global_state": false,
  "metadata": {
    "taken_by": "phr",
    "taken_because": "backup before upgrading"
  }
}
#查看快照
GET /_snapshot/my_backup/snapshot_yd
#查看所有快照
GET /_snapshot/my_backup/_all
#删除快照
DELETE /_snapshot/my_backup/snapshot_yd
#监控快照创建或恢复过程
GET /_snapshot/my_backup/snapshot_yd/_status
#恢复快照
POST /_snapshot/my_backup/snapshot_yd/_restore
#动态模板
PUT /_template/yxd179_tpl
{
  "index_patterns": [
    "yxd179-2021*"
  ],
  "settings": {
    "number_of_shards": 1,
    "number_of_replicas": 1
  },
  "mappings": {
    "yd": {
      "dynamic_templates": [
        {
          "strings": {
            "match_mapping_type": "string",
            "mapping": {
              "type": "text",
              "index": true,
              "copy_to": "full_context",
              "analyzer": "ik_max_word",
              "fields": {
                "keyword": {
                  "type": "keyword",
                  "ignore_above": 256
                }
              }
            }
          }
        }
      ],
      "properties": {
        "full_context": {
          "type": "text",
          "analyzer": "ik_max_word",
          "fielddata": true,
          "store": true
        }
      }
    }
  }
}
​
#副本分片分配设置
PUT /yxd179-2021/_settings
{
  "number_of_replicas": "1"
}
​
#分页查询
GET /yxd179-2021/yd/_search
{
  "from": 0,
  "size": 30
}
​
#根据ID查询
GET /yxd179-2021/yd/647461503271768064
​
#bool query dsl查询
GET /yxd179-2021/yd/_search
{
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
        {
          "bool": {
            "should": [
              {
                "match": {
                  "regNumber": "20203030651"
                }
              }
            ]
          }
        },
        {
          "term": {
            "status": "1"
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  },
  "sort": [
    {
      "createTime": {
        "order": "desc"
      }
    }
  ],
  "from": 0,
  "size": 10
}
​
#允许ES最大滚动数目分配设置
PUT /yxd179-2021/_settings
{
  "index": {
    "max_result_window": 13000000
  }
}
​
#查看字段分词分析过程
POST /yxd179-2021/_analyze
{
  "field": "regNumber",
  "text": "国械标准20203030651号"
}
​
#模糊查询匹配
GET /yxd179-2021/yd/_search
{
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
        {
          "bool": {
            "should": [
              {
                "wildcard": {
                  "regNumber.keyword": "*20203030651*"
                }
              }
            ]
          }
        },
        {
          "term": {
            "status": "1"
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  },
  "sort": [
    {
      "createTime": {
        "order": "desc"
      }
    }
  ],
  "from": 0,
  "size": 10
}
​
#对指定字段设置分词器查询
GET /yxd179-2021/yd/_search
{
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
        {
          "match": {
            "hdsd0001004": {
              "query": "1828551417",
              "analyzer": "char_analyzer"
            }
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  },
  "from": 0,
  "size": 30
}
​
#模糊查询匹配
GET /yxd179-2021/yd/_search
{
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
        {
          "wildcard": {
            "hdsd0001002.keyword": "*yxd179*"
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  },
  "from": 0,
  "size": 30
}
​
#关闭索引:
POST yxd179-2021/_close
​
#打开索引:
POST yxd179-2021/_open
​
#对指定字段设置分词器
PUT /yxd179-2021/_mapping/yd
{
  "properties": {
    "hdsd0001004": {
      "type": "text",
      "analyzer": "char_analyzer"
    }
  }
}
​
#查看mapping结构体信息
GET yxd179-2021/_mapping
​
#设置分词分析器
PUT yxd179-2021/_settings
{
  "analysis": {
    "analyzer": {
      "char_analyzer": {
        "tokenizer": "char_tokenizer",
        "filter": "lowercase"
      }
    },
    "tokenizer": {
      "char_tokenizer": {
        "type": "pattern",
        "pattern": "|"
      }
    }
  }
}
​
#minimum_should_match
GET /yxd179-2021/yd/_search
{
  "query": {
    "query_string": {
      "query": "182855141y7",
      "type": "phrase",
      "operator": "AND",
      "minimum_should_match": "100%",
      "fields": [
        "hdsd0001004"
      ]
    }
  }
}
​
#显示字段
GET /yxd179-2021/yd/_search
{
  "_source": {
    "include": [
      "id",
      "productId"
      ]
  },
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
        {
          "terms": {
            "productId": [
              636654265306419462
              ]
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  },
  "from": 0,
  "size": 30
}
​
#高亮查询
GET /yxd179-2021/yd/_search
{
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
        {
          "bool": {
            "should": []
          }
        },
        {
          "term": {
            "status": "1"
          }
        },
        {
          "term":{
            "id":636662671736099971
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  },
  "sort": [
    {
      "id": {
        "order": "asc"
      }
    }
  ],
  "highlight": {
    "pre_tags": [
      "<span class='title-key'>"
    ],
    "post_tags": [
      "</span>"
    ],
    "fields": {
      "commonName": {
        "type": "plain"
      }
    }
  },
  "from": 0,
  "size": 10
}
​
#read_only_allow_delete
PUT /yxd179-2021/_settings
{
  "index":{
    "blocks":{
      "read_only_allow_delete":"false"
    }
  }
}
​
#查询模板
GET /_template
​
GET /yxd179-2021*/yd/_search
{
  "from": 0,
  "size": 30
}
​
#单个字段bool查询
GET /yxd179-2021/yd/_search
{
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
        {
          "term": {
            "id": "636651493706133509"
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  },
  "from": 0,
  "size": 30
}
​
#批量
POST /_bulk
{"index":{"_index":"yxd179-2021","_type":"yd","_id":"65965969996688"}}
{"id":"65965969996688","HDSD0001002":"sdff","HDSD0001008":"fsdf","HDSD0001006":"000000000000000000","create_time":"2021-07-29","cancel_flag":0}
{"index":{"_index":"yxd179-2021","_type":"yd","_id":"66049829996688"}}
{"id":"66049829996688","HDSD0001002":"sdgsdg","HDSD0001008":"fsdfsdf","HDSD0001006":"000000000000000000","create_time":"2021-07-29","cancel_flag":1} 
​
#外层交集查询
GET /yxd179-2021/yd/_search
{
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
        {
          "bool": {
            "should": [
              {
                "match": {
                  "regNumber": "国sd20182642128"
                }
              }
            ]
          }
        },
        {
          "term": {
            "status": "1"
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  },
  "sort": [
    {
      "createTime": {
        "order": "desc"
      }
    }
  ],
  "from": 0,
  "size": 10
}
​
#复杂bool带权重查询-得分排序
GET /yxd179-2021/yd/_search
{
  "from": 0,
  "size": 10,
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
        {
          "bool": {
            "must": [
              {
                "term": {
                  "cancelFlag": {
                    "value": "0",
                    "boost": 1
                  }
                }
              }
            ],
            "adjust_pure_negative": true,
            "boost": 1
          }
        },
        {
          "bool": {
            "should": [
              {
                "match": {
                  "yhe": {
                    "query": "张",
                    "operator": "OR",
                    "prefix_length": 0,
                    "max_expansions": 50,
                    "fuzzy_transpositions": true,
                    "lenient": false,
                    "zero_terms_query": "NONE",
                    "auto_generate_synonyms_phrase_query": true,
                    "boost": 1
                  }
                }
              },
              {
                "match": {
                  "yhr": {
                    "query": "张",
                    "operator": "OR",
                    "prefix_length": 0,
                    "max_expansions": 50,
                    "fuzzy_transpositions": true,
                    "lenient": false,
                    "zero_terms_query": "NONE",
                    "auto_generate_synonyms_phrase_query": true,
                    "boost": 1
                  }
                }
              },
              {
                "match": {
                  "yht": {
                    "query": "张",
                    "operator": "OR",
                    "prefix_length": 0,
                    "max_expansions": 50,
                    "fuzzy_transpositions": true,
                    "lenient": false,
                    "zero_terms_query": "NONE",
                    "auto_generate_synonyms_phrase_query": true,
                    "boost": 1
                  }
                }
              },
              {
                "match": {
                  "yhg": {
                    "query": "张",
                    "operator": "OR",
                    "prefix_length": 0,
                    "max_expansions": 50,
                    "fuzzy_transpositions": true,
                    "lenient": false,
                    "zero_terms_query": "NONE",
                    "auto_generate_synonyms_phrase_query": true,
                    "boost": 1
                  }
                }
              }
            ],
            "adjust_pure_negative": true,
            "boost": 1
          }
        }
      ],
      "adjust_pure_negative": true,
      "boost": 1
    }
  },
  "explain": true,
  "sort": [
    {
      "id": {
        "order": "desc"
      }
    }
  ]
}
​
​
#查询耗时统计分析profile
GET /yxd179-2021/yd/_search
{
  "profile": true,
  "query":{
   "term":{
     "tu":6583120
   }
 }
}
​
#根据ID修改
POST /yxd179-2021/yd/b00e89b652484b0b8da16e090302e012/_update
{
  "doc":{
    "fd":"1"
  }
}
​
#修改_update_by_query脚本引擎painless
POST /yxd179-2021/_update_by_query
{
 "query":{
   "term":{
     "fdh":6583120
   }
 },
 "script":{
   "lang":"painless",
   "source": "ctx._source.cancelFlag=params.cancelFlag;ctx._source.updateTime=params.updateTime",
   "params": {
     "cancelFlag":"0",
     "updateTime":"2021-07-28T01:17:36.000Z"
   }
 }
}
​
#交集查询-且保留-全
GET /yxd179-2021/yd/_search
{
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
        {
          "term": {
            "cancelFlag": "0"
          }
        },
        {
          "bool": {
            "must": [
              {
                "wildcard": {
                  "hdsd0001002.keyword": "*yxd179*"
                }
              },
              {
                "match": {
                  "hdsd0001003": "2"
                }
              }
            ]
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  },
  "sort": [
    {
      "id": {
        "order": "desc"
      }
    }
  ],
  "highlight": {
    "pre_tags": [
      "<span class='title-key'>"
    ],
    "post_tags": [
      "</span>"
    ],
    "fields": {
      "hdsd0001002": {
        "type": "plain"
      }
    }
  },
  "from": 0,
  "size": 30
}
​
​
#外层交集查询-里层交集查询
GET /yxd179-2021/yd/_search
{
  "from": 0,
  "size": 10,
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
        {
          "bool": {
            "must": [
              {
                "term": {
                  "cancelFlag": {
                    "value": "0",
                    "boost": 1
                  }
                }
              }
            ],
            "adjust_pure_negative": true,
            "boost": 1
          }
        },
        {
          "bool": {
            "must": [
              {
                "match": {
                  "hdsd0001002": {
                    "query": "张",
                    "operator": "OR",
                    "prefix_length": 0,
                    "max_expansions": 50,
                    "fuzzy_transpositions": true,
                    "lenient": false,
                    "zero_terms_query": "NONE",
                    "auto_generate_synonyms_phrase_query": true,
                    "boost": 1
                  }
                }
              },
              {
                "match": {
                  "hdsd0001003": {
                    "query": "2",
                    "operator": "OR",
                    "prefix_length": 0,
                    "max_expansions": 50,
                    "fuzzy_transpositions": true,
                    "lenient": false,
                    "zero_terms_query": "NONE",
                    "auto_generate_synonyms_phrase_query": true,
                    "boost": 1
                  }
                }
              }
            ],
            "adjust_pure_negative": true,
            "boost": 1
          }
        }
      ],
      "adjust_pure_negative": true,
      "boost": 1
    }
  },
  "explain": true
}
​
​
#并集查询
GET /yxd179-2021/yd/_search
{
  "from": 0,
  "size": 10,
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
        {
          "term": {
            "cancelFlag": {
              "value": "0",
              "boost": 1
            }
          }
        }
      ],
      "should": [
        {
          "match": {
            "hdsd0001002": {
              "query": "张",
              "operator": "OR",
              "prefix_length": 0,
              "max_expansions": 50,
              "fuzzy_transpositions": true,
              "lenient": false,
              "zero_terms_query": "NONE",
              "auto_generate_synonyms_phrase_query": true,
              "boost": 1
            }
          }
        }
      ],
      "adjust_pure_negative": true,
      "boost": 1
    }
  },
  "explain": true
}
​
#并集查询-字段显示
GET /yxd179-2021/yd/_search
{
  "from": 0,
  "size": 10,
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
        {
          "match": {
            "cancelFlag": {
              "query": "0",
              "operator": "AND",
              "prefix_length": 0,
              "max_expansions": 50,
              "fuzzy_transpositions": true,
              "lenient": false,
              "zero_terms_query": "NONE",
              "auto_generate_synonyms_phrase_query": true,
              "boost": 1
            }
          }
        }
      ],
      "should": [
        {
          "match": {
            "hdsd0001002": {
              "query": "张",
              "operator": "OR",
              "prefix_length": 0,
              "max_expansions": 50,
              "fuzzy_transpositions": true,
              "lenient": false,
              "zero_terms_query": "NONE",
              "auto_generate_synonyms_phrase_query": true,
              "boost": 1
            }
          }
        },
        {
          "match": {
            "hdsd0001002.pinyin": {
              "query": "zhang",
              "operator": "OR",
              "prefix_length": 0,
              "max_expansions": 50,
              "fuzzy_transpositions": true,
              "lenient": false,
              "zero_terms_query": "NONE",
              "auto_generate_synonyms_phrase_query": true,
              "boost": 1
            }
          }
        }
      ],
      "adjust_pure_negative": true,
      "boost": 1
    }
  },
  "explain": true,
  "_source": {
    "includes": [
      "id",
      "th001Id",
      "createTime",
      "updateTime",
      "hdsd0001001",
      "hdsd0001002",
      "cancelFlag"
    ],
    "excludes": []
  }
}
​
​
#若需要更频繁的更新,可以使用es api强制更新
GET /yxd179-2021/_refresh
​
#根据ID删除
DELETE /yxd179-2021/yd/ud6-5XkBwVbB7HKjg5k0
​
#删除索引
DELETE /yxd179-2021
​
#删除模板-动态mapping
DELETE  /_template/yxd179_tpl
​
#排序
GET /yxd179-2021/yd/_search
{
  "sort": [
    {
      "createTime": {
        "order": "desc"
      }
    }
  ],
  "from": 0,
  "size": 30
}

脚本引擎案例

三、Elasticsearch Script ActualCombat-分布式全文搜索-脚本引擎实战

这里仅以Update-By-Query为例: image.png 其中,lang指定脚本引擎:painless,source中为script脚本片段,params为脚本参数值。

之所以通过params传递,可突破ES对脚本编译限制,虽然也可以通过下面操作来修改该解析上限的配置:

PUT /_cluster/settings
{
  "transient": {
    "script.max_compilations_per_minute": 40
  }
}

重要:对于大批量数据,ES都需要单独的编译解析,当进行bulk update时,若是每一个脚本都实时编译的话,可想而知很快就会达到上限。知其然知其所以然,对于ES中都只会在第一次进行解析这个脚本,之后便无需再次解析,当脚本中有常数变量时,ES会实时编译脚本,故结合script中的param功能,设法将脚本中的变量通过param传递进去,从而可以从根本上解决脚本编译解析限制的问题。

接下来,我们看下在Java中怎么样基于6.8.6版本构建tcp client执行painless脚本引擎? image.png 补充:对updateByQuery API的调用从获取索引快照开始,索引使用内部版本控制找到任何文档。

试想当一个文档在快照的时间和索引请求过程之间发生变化时,会发生版本冲突。当版本匹配时,updateByQuery更新文档并增加版本号。上述为了防止版本冲突导致updateByQuery中止,还可以设abortOnVersionConflict(false),之所以这么做,是有可能它试图获取在线映射更改,而版本冲突意味着在相同时间开始updateByQuery和试图更新文档的冲突文档,该更新将获取在线映射更新,updateByQuery也可以通过指定pipeline来使用ingest节点。其中UpdateByQueryRequestBuilder API可支持过滤更新的文档,限制要更新的文档总数,并使用脚本更新文档,即时刷入磁盘,重试次数等。

Retry: 当客户端A、B几乎同时获取同一个文档, 一并获得_version版本信息, 假设此时_version=1。

接着,客户端A修改文档中的部分内容, 将修改写入索引。而Elasticsearch在写入索引时, 检查客户端A提交的文档的版本信息(这里仍然是1) 和 现存的文档的版本信息(这里也是1), 发现相同后, 执行写入操作, 并修改版本号_version=2。然后客户端B也修改文档中的部分内容, 其操作写回索引的速度稍慢,此时同样执行写入过程,ES发现客户端B提交的文档的版本为1, 而现存文档的版本为2,即发生冲突,此次partial update将失败-重试。

并发控制策略:partial update并发控制策略-乐观锁

结尾

小试牛刀案例:如何通过脚本引擎指定多个字段update?

方式No.1:

ctx._source.putAll(params) 

方式No.2:

for (k in params.keySet()){if (!k.equals('ctx')){ctx._source.put(k, params.get(k))

末尾:后续Java框架体系,数据库技术体系,大数据体系进阶案例实战都会同时更新,微信公众号同步,旨在分享的初衷,欢迎提出宝贵建议^_^

image.png

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